Geology 1 Lectures
Note: more information, lecture notes and exam practice questions, can be found in the Geology 1 Green Study Guide
Geology 1 Lectures
textbook chapters refer to 'Earth', 8th edition, by Tarbuck and Lutgens
Lecture order below from Spring 2006
'Intro to Geology and the Earth' (Ch 1)
'Plate Tectonics' (Ch 2, 12 & 13)
What is Plate Tectonics?
Evidence for Pangea; in the order the evidence was discovered
Exploring the Ocean
Magnetic Stripes, the Earth's Magnetic Field
and geomagnetic reversals
Sea Floor Spreading?
Continental Drift + Sea Floor Spreading ==> Plate Tectonics!
Plate Tectonics is global recycling
Types of Plate Edges/Margins
geology at each type of plate edge: cross-sections
Locations of Earthquakes and Volcanoes
Determining Plate Edges
Plate Tectonics... Fact or Theory?
What causes the plates to move?
Supercontinents and the history of Pangea
Constructing a Geologic Cross-section across the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
An Introduction to Rocks and Minerals (Ch. 1 &
The Three Basic Rock Types
The Rock Cycle
What is a mineral?
How Do Minerals Form?
crystal growth demo + CD-ROM animations
Where Do Minerals Form? (Ch. 21)
examples: gold, diamond, etc.
Igneous Rocks (Ch. 4)
Volcanoes (Ch. 5)
Types of Volcanoes
Mafic Volcano features and formations
+slides and powerpoint
shield volcanoes, calderas,
pahoehoe, aa lava
volcanic necks, hexagonal basalts,
lava tubes, flood basalts, etc.
Shiprock, Devil's Tower, etc.
Pillow Basalts (Ch. 13)
video: Fire Under The Sea
Sialic/Felsic Volcano features and formations
+slides, video clips and powerpoint
volcanic ash, pyroclastic flows,
lahars, volcanic lightning
Mt. St. Helens, Crater Lake, etc.
Plug Domes; ex. Mt. Lassen
Film: Volcano: Surtsey
Hot Springs, Geysers, Fumaroles, etc. (Ch. 17)
+slides and powerpoint
and Processes (Ch.
7, 9, 13 & 21)
and Environments of Deposition and Formation
Types of Sed Rocks
compaction w/o becoming metamorphic
typical cements: SiO2, CaCO3
limestone, CaCO3, aragonite
'table salt', halite, NaCl
black smoker metal sulfides (Ch 13)
manganese nodule metal oxides (Ch 7)
grades/stages of coal
environment and formation
coral (Ch 7 & Ch 13)
formation of coral reefs
slides and video clips
oil and gas (Ch. 21)
source rock and reservoir rocks
Types of Coral Reefs (Ch. 13)
Great Barrier Reef geology
sea cliff retreat
sea caves, arches and stacks
Video: “Beach: River of Sand” MV 23223
Q: Where does sand come from?
Q: What are beaches made of?
Q: Summer vs. Winter beaches?
Q: Which direction does the sand go
Q: On the west coast?
Q: On the east coast?
Q: Where does the sand ultimately end up?
Example: case study at Santa Barbara
Evolution of Shorelines
Changing Sea Levels
tectonic and eustatic
marine terraces and drowned valleys
drinking and agricultural water - supplies 20% of U.S. freshwater demand
20 times the amount of water in rivers and lakes
a rock can have HI porosity and LO permeability
Water flow - gravity and lowest pressure
cone of depression, water wars
c.Long Beach (oil removal)
a.Salinas Valley and Monterey Bay
septic tanks, leakage from disposal sites, gas stations, etc.
Caves -speleology and spelunking
dissolution = CAVES
deposition = TRAVERTINE, CaCO3
stalactites and stalagmites
including photos from
Mono Lake and Greenland
Bowling Green Kentucky
Llano Estecado, East of Lubbock, Texas
Kaibab Limestone, Arizona
Gui Lin, China
Puerto Rico (Arecibo region)
Geomorphology: Landforms (Ch 2-20)
jointing and fractures, spheroidal weathering, exfoliation
landslides, rockfall, talus slopes
V-shaped valleys point bars
Youth to Old Age levees
meanders stream terraces
oxbow lakes entrenched meanders
floodplains Yazoo streams
tectonics, orogeny, faulting and folding
Appalachians Rocky Mountains
Basin and Range Sierra Nevada
shield flood basalts
cinder columnar jointing
pillow basalts pahoehoe and aa lavas
sea stacks beaches
tombolos barrier bars
baymouth bars marine terraces
reefs: fringing, barrier and atolls
U-shaped valleys drumlins
hanging valleys glacial polish
Caves and Karst Topography
sinkholes disappearing streams
stalagmites tower karst
hard and resistant vs. soft and weak
buttes strike valleys
pillars natural arches
often interbedded shales, ss and ls
arid climate: shales less resistant = SLOPES
ss & ls more resistant = CLIFFS
e.g., Grand Canyon & Colorado River
Bryce Canyon NP, Utah
tilted rx and erosion
cuestas, flatirons, hogbacks
Intensity and Magnitude
Modified Mercalli Scale and the Rossi-Forel Scale
Earth's Internal Structure
P waves travel through solid, liquid and gas
S waves travel through solids ONLY
NOT through liquids or gases
S-wave SHADOW ZONE
P-wave SHADOW ZONE
Global Seismic Monitoring
Monitoring nuclear testing
Precursors and Aftershocks
The following is an outline of the topics covered in the Geo 9 (Homework) class, Spring 2006