The Palomar Telescope at Night

Instructor: Eric W. Harpell

Last modified: 1/10/08

Please read this entire document carefully before beginning the class!

Jupiter and Io from New Horizons space craft

Jupiter and Io from New Horizons space craft
Credit & Copyright: NASA, JPL

Course Information: content

space station over ionian sea

Welcome! If you are new to Astronomy 10, take a a few minutes to read the course description and information below. The timeline for everything you need to do in the class is contained in the Weekly Schedule. You will see the link for this webpage at the top of this page and also in the course menu in blackboard. Please check it out as soon as you. Since this is a distance education course, there are no official class meetings. Students are welcome and encouraged to come on campus to use the facilities here and of course stop by your instructors office hours (see staff information in blackboard).

Taking (and Succeeding) Astronomy on-line:

In a nutshell, you need to do six things to succeed in this class. In order of importance to your grade, they are:

  • Study material from your textbook and web sites listed in the class syllabus.
  • take quizzes in blackboard
  • complete Assignments from the Mastering Astronomy Website
  • complete research assignments
  • participate in the discussion board
  • take a final exam
    These items, and the grading rubrics for each, will be discussed in more detail below.

This Semester we have embarked on a Journey through the Solar system, and occasionally beyond. The class schedule will guide you, but of course, the consistent effort and enthusiasm necessary to succeed is your job. In one semester , you will read material from the textbook, work through tutorials, research and write brief reviews of contemporary research in astronomy, and take quizzes. To cap it off, a final essay exam awaits at the end of week seventeen. Unfortunately, this is not a leisurely stroll through the wonders of the solar system--there is much to do in astronomy if you wish to succeed and sufficient time to learn and enjoy the material if you pace yourself properly. In other words, completing this class will take a serious commitment of time and concentration. To provide a point a reference, students taking astronomy (on the web) as a seventeen week semester course are advised to set aside nine hours per week for the class. My best advice is to try to do something related to astronomy every day until you find a pace that works.

Although this course lacks regular meetings with an instructor or classmates, you are not alone here. Answers to your questions are an e-mail to the instructor away. You The discussion area (see below) is also a valuable resource. Be sure to check out the Frequently Asked Questions Page (FAQ's) as well (see Blackboard). Finally, In astronomy, perhaps more than any other topic, we are fortunate to have an incredible array of images, descriptions, data, simulations, and activities from astronomers around the world literally at our fingertips on the Internet.

Getting started in Astro 10 DE

As many of you of you have already discovered, the first "portal" for your learning experience is Blackboard. Only students enrolled in the class will be able to login (following the step by step instructions that appear). Blackboard is designed to function as your on-line "classroom" where you will access assignments, view and participate in the "discussion" area, and take quizzes and the final exam. From Blackboard, you can also send messages to your instructor and classmates using the e-mail system (note--blackboard simply routes messages to your regular e-mail address--be sure to go to Student Tools and personal information to make sure your e-mail address is correct. YOU MUST have a valid e-mail address listed there or you cannot hope to communicate as needed to pass this class). When you are finished reading this document, go to blackboard and click on the various links to see what is available. You will find quiz one in the quizzes and exams area (or you will shortly in week one), and assignment 1 in the assignments area. Additional quizzes and assignments will appear on the dates listed in the class syllabus. The most important link in Blackboard, however, is the class schedule/syllabus. Keeping up with the syllabus will you to succeed in this class. Reminders and information about assignments and quizzes will be posted in the "announcements" area in blackboard (you can't miss it) and will also be sent out via email from time to time.

Mastering Astronomy Website

In addition to Blackboard, The Mastering Astronomy Website is another portal to learning astronomy over the Internet. This site is found at Please see your instructors short guide to using Mastering Astronomy. It will save you time and possibly a few headaches. Note that you must join the class by using the class ID: MAHARPELL2228

Assignments from this site are particularly useful and are a required part of the class! You should complete the assignments listed in the class schedule prior to taking the appropriate quiz in blackboard. Word of warning: DO NOT IGNORE THE Mastering astronomy website! Make sure you see the Guide to Using Mastering Astronomy!

If you purchase your text new in the bookstore, a code for accessing the Mastering Astronomy will be included in an insert in your text. If you purchase your book used, or elsewhere, you will need to purchase an access code once you log on the Mastering Astronomy. The cost is approximately $27 on-line. You will need a credit card to make the purchase. Note that this is not optional!

Course Description

Astro 10 is a one-semester introduction to the solar system. Along the way, we will explore the motions of the stars, planets, and moons. We will also study the Earth, inside and out (literally!), and some of the environmental problems that we six billion humans are facing here at home.

Using the Earth as a model, we can also learn about other worlds, starting with the contained in the debris--comets and asteroids--still in orbit about the sun. Finally, we will apply what what have learned about our own solar system to the search for planets outsMoon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, and the outer planets. As part of our exploration, we will discuss theories on the formation of the solar system and study evidence for these theories ide the solar system and the possibility of finding intelligent life on these new worlds.

Course materials

Required text: you need only one textbook for this class. The textbook for our course is Cosmic Perspective, The: The Solar System Media Update with MasteringAstronomy™ and Voyager SkyGazer Planetarium Software, 4/E
Bennett, Donahue, Schneider & Voit
© 2007 | Addison-Wesley | Paper Package;576 pages | Instock
ISBN-10: 0321499700 | ISBN-13: 9780321499707

The Solar System by Bennett

this text is available at the LPC bookstore, packaged with all the necessary and useful materials for the class--If you purchase it from the bookstore, you will also receive an access code for Mastering Astronomy (required) and the the Voyager Star Gazer planetarium program (useful for the backyard astronomer and required for astronomy 30). See Information on Used Books below if you are able to purchase a used copy.

Note: Benett's "The Solar System--The Cosmic Perspective" is a "split"-- approximately half of Stars, Galaxies and Cosmology: The other half is currently used in astronomy 20. The Mastering Astronomy chapter numbers refer to this text. Here is the publisher's information about the complete text. You should purchase it instead of the book above if you are considering taking astronomy 20 in the near future at Las Positas or Chabot College.

Used Books and other options:
Many students find it cost effective to shop for books online. So if you purchase a book from any source, used or new, you must have the 4th edition of The Cosmic perspective by Bennett or 4th edition of the Cosmic Perspective: The solar System by Bennett. You will be absolutely required to use software called Mastering Astronomy. An access code usually comes free with new books, but you should check on this before ordering. If you buy a used book, for example, or a book that doesn't come with the access code to Mastering Astronomy, you will need to purchase your own, individual access code for approximately $27, so please factor this into the price you are willing to pay for the book!

Other materials:

  • Required: Access code to The Mastering Astronomy. This code comes free of charge with new books purchased in the bookstore. If you buy a used book, or a text on line, you will most likely need to purchase the access code on-line when you access the Mastering Astronomy.
  • Computer and internet access: Access to Computer with working internet connection at home. Although it is possible to do this class using a dial up connection, you will get frustrated on occasion, so I recommend having an alternate, faster internet source available to do your work on occasion. If your connection goes down for a few days there are a large number of computers available on campus at Las Positas College (try the Learning Resource Center). Local Libraries, internet cafes, and community colleges also have internet access. You are responsible for keeping up with class work regardless of the status of your internet connection! note that everything can be turned in late for reduced credit if your internet access is temporarily unavailable. No exceptions will be made in this regard!

Participation and Assessment .......... Telescopes from ESA in South America

Grades in Astronomy 10 will be based on your performance on 10 Mastering Astronomy tutorial Assignments , 10 blackboard quizzes, three research assignments, a final exam, and participation in Blackboard class discussions. Each these graded items will be discussed in more detail below.

Research Assignments :

There will be one survey and two research assignments on special topics in Astro 10. Links for these assignments will be found in the Blackboard Assignments area. For assignment one, you will take an online survey, and then administer a different survey of basic astronomical knowledge to a few other people. The results will be reported in the discussion area of Blackboard. The second and third assignments are reports on a print article of current interest in astronomy beyond the solar system, backed up by information that you find on the web. More of this will be discussed below. The only criteria for choosing a topic for assignments two and three is that they be directly related to course material, and that you have access to three very recent references on the subject, both electronic and print (at least one of each--textbook not included), and that your material is current (for example, a report of Mars should include the results of the most recent spacecraft missions). In particular, you are encouraged to explore areas of current debate such as:

  • The discovery and search for extra-solar planets
  • Project Kepler to search out Earth-like Extra solar planets
  • Project Phoenix recently launched for the Martian Polar region
  • NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter
  • New Horizons Mission to Pluto and the Kipper Belt
  • The Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn
  • Project Deep Impact to Comet Tuttle.
  • MESSINGER mission to Mercury
  • Venus Express mission to Venus
  • the possibility of finding life on Europa or other Jovian moon
  • the geology of Mars or Venus
  • the evolution of the Earth's atmosphere
  • the possibility of life on Mars
  • the possibilities for colonizing the moon or other world.
  • The discovery of Trans-Neptunian Objects such Quoar, Sedna, and the newly discovered Planet ten ("Eris")
  • Any other topic related to astronomy of the solar system...please check with your instructor if you wish to do something not on this list!
  • To see some examples of previous student work (web pages only), check out Recent Astro 10 student projects on the web . You should know, however, that some of these projects were created as "final student projects" which was required to be longer and more in depth than the two research assignments you will submit in astro 10 this semester.

    Blue Cresent moon as seen from the ISS
    Crescent Moon as seen from the ISS

    Note that your topic must not focus on material generally discussed in the other astronomy course taught at Las Positas College, namely astronomy 20. These "forbidden" topics include Black Holes, Stars, Galaxies, Cosmology, and Dark Matter.

    Of course, there a large number of choices, too numerous to list here. Once you have selected a topic, the requirements are listed below

    1. Research, outline, and develop a small power point presentation, web page, or paper--with text equivalent to three or four pages of double spaced twelve point type in length-- and submit it on or before the due date listed in the class syllabus. Attempts to make your projects appear longer by using spaces and larger type won't go over well!......Inserting properly referenced images in your paper is a wonderful (and strongly recommended)idea, but they must lengthen your paper beyond three pages. In Lieu of a formal paper, you are strongly encouraged to create a web site or Power point presentation with illustrations, links, etc., so long as the text content is still equivalent to at least three double spaced and typed pages. In all cases, you must reference your sources. While multimedia presentations are strongly encouraged, they are by no means mandatory! Whether you create a web page, type a formal paper, or create a power point presentation is completely up to you. Please note however, that many of your classmates will create multi media presentations!! You will submit your assignments by clicking on the link in the blackboard assignments area and uploading your paper or presentation from your computer (If you do a web page, you can simply include a link).

    Class Discussion

    You are expected to make frequent use of the discussion area in Blackboard to post questions, provide feedback to your classmates, and simply discuss topics of interest to you. This area constitutes your "attendance" in Astronomy 10. More importantly, however, it will be a primary learning tool, allowing you to explore astronomy by interacting with others. You will find that as your knowledge of astronomy grows, your ability and desire to write about it will grow as well. Many posts in astro 10 concern the ten quizzes--you will see that there is a discussion area for each quiz where you can post questions and receive help for each quiz. Guidelines for this process are discussed below. Another section, "topics of astronomical Interest" is where you can post and read about exciting new developments in astronomy. It will also help you find ideas for your research assignments. These posts are "double counted" when I asses you use of the discussion are at the end of the class. There will also be a section entitled Question of the Week (though there will only be about ten questions), where you are asked to comment on a question posted by your instructor each week. Hopefully, the posts will not be limited to a simple reply, but will be part of discussion between your classmates and yourself.

    Points for your Posts

    In some cases, assignments will require you to post items in the discussion area. For these posts, you will receive a set number of points toward your final grade. A larger number of points, however, will be given at the instructors discretion for your participation ....i.e., The frequency and quality of your responses to the posted items from your classmates. The idea of the discussion board is simple. Check in frequently, and post items of interest to you, and respond when you can. It is hoped and expected that all students will receive full credit for this portion of the class. Your feedback will help the instructor make this area more interesting and useful for everyone. For an "A" grade in the discussion area, you are expected to post to the discussion board one a week or more...(give or take a few weeks/posts--at least twenty posts per semester). For more info, check out:Rubrics for the Discussion Area.

    Blackboard Quizzes:

    There will be 10 blackboard quizzes on dates given in the schedule. These Quizzes will be based on textbook material, Mastering Astronomy tutorials, and required class lectures and links found in the Lectures and Links page in blackboard. As part of your mastering astronomy assignments, you will also take "textbook quizzes". The results of these quizzes are part of your score in the mastering astronomy assignments, but more importantly, they will definitely provide an "edge" on the blackboard fact some questions in blackboard come directly from the Mastering Astronomy quizzes!!

    Quiz due dates are listed in the syllabus, and in the Blackboard quiz area (so you can't miss hearing about them). Quizzes will generally be "open" meaning that you can take as long as you want to complete them (within the allotted period), and use whatever resources you find useful. Feel free to print them out and work on them off-line until it is time to submit them. (See "cheating" vs. "fair use" guidelines for quizzes below). In other words, the quizzes are not timed. If you fail to submit a quiz by the due date, you can still submit it late, but you will be subject to a penalty (see below). Quiz problems will be generally be multiple choice. Warning: If you try to take the quiz in one sitting you are not likely to do well!! Thinking of them as a type of homework is most likely to produce good results! In order to keep you on track for the summer, the first five quizzes will be "open" until the end of week three. After that, the results of these quizzes will be downloaded, and anyone taking them after week three will be docked 10% for being late. Quizzes 6 - 10 will be available prior to week three and will be open until the final exam. There will be no late options for these last five quizzes.

    Unless the instructor fails to post a quiz on time, there will be no exceptions made to this policy I.e., If you had to work, or were ill, or had a relative in need of care, or if your internet service provider went off line, you will still miss at least 10% on that quiz if its late. I apologize for this strict policy, but 10% on a single quiz is very unlikely to harm your overall grade (see the grading policy below). On the other hand, please feel free to let me know if there are legitimate problems going on. At the very least, I will know that you are still involved in the class and perhaps I can help in some small way. Also, if you expect to see a quiz when you log in and it is not there, don't panic, and please don't send threatening emails to your instructor. You will not be penalized for "glitches" on the instructors end. Running a distance Ed class (or two) is quite complicated...stuff happens....I'll do my best to try to avoid problems, but when they do I will also do my best to resolve the problem in as painless a manner as possible.

    Final Exam:image of mir space station
    There is one final exam, in essay format-- in counterpoint to the quizzes which are multiple choice. You must take the final sometime during the dates listed in the schedule. The final cannot be taken late. The final exam is vital for your final grade, so please mark the dates on your calendar. You will receive announcements in blackboard ahead of time to help you prepare for the exam. For the Final, you will have three and a half hours to answer the essay questions. one week prior to the final, a set of questions will be sent out to help you prepare. There is no special way to prepare for the final, other than working through the class material and reviewing quiz questions that you didn't understand.

    The final exam cannot be taken late or early unless PRIOR arrangements have been AGREED UPON by the instructor and student. There will be no exceptions to this policy.

    Cheating Stephens quartet of galaxies Fair Use

    In my opinion (as both an instructor and a long time student) there are three important components to learning a subject: learning on your own, learning by interacting with others, and getting feedback to see whether you really understand something. In Astronomy 10, I wish to strongly encourage all three methods. Most of your assignments will be designed to do just that, getting you to do some research to answer questions that will pique your interest and help you learn, and then discuss the responses with others, either in person or through the discussion area. The quizzes, however, represent a bit of a gray area. On the quizzes, you will be asked a series of questions (multiple choice) that test your understand of a topic, or at least your familiarity with the learning resources (i.e. where to find the answer in the text, or on the web). So here is the dilemma: Should you ask a classmate or someone else about quiz questions? The answer is "sometimes." To make this a bit less cryptic, here is how you cheat on a quiz or exam:: Student A takes the quiz or exam and submits his or her answers. Feedback is automatically output for for each question. Student B then gets the feedback (i.e. the correct answers) from Student A and uses those answers to get a higher score on the quiz. Here is how you interact fairly for a quiz:

    1) take it yourself without asking anyone else, or...
    2) send an e-mail or phone the instructor asking specific questions, or...
    3) Use the discussion area to ask your classmates where to look for information leading to the answer (there will be a separate category in the discussion area for each quiz, where you can post questions and helpful information about where to look!) While It is difficult for the instructor to be positive if a student is or is not taking a quiz fairly, it is usually easy enough to tell by comparing the times that a quiz is submitted with the score, and by comparing performance on the exams with performance on quizzes. Such problems are rare at Las Positas, but they have occurred. In particular, students have failed the course for collaborating on the final exam.


    Graphic of person pushing ball uphill
    Your grade will be based on total points as follows:

    • 10 assignments from Mastering Astronomy --100 points Mastering Astronomy scores will be weighted in the students favor--if you get 80% or higher on an assignment, you will get all possible points. For more detail, see the guide to mastering astronomy.
    • 10 online quizzes --250 points
    • Three research assignments--65 points
    • a final exam 75 points
    • course participation in on-line discussions. 30 points

    total = 520 pts

    note that by checking "my scores" in blackboard, you can see how you have done on individual assignments.Points subtracted from late quizzes will not show up in blackboard until the end of the class. Mastering Astronomy scores will also not appear in blackboard during the semester. Also note that You can keep track of your progress on tutorials by viewing the "results reporter" in the Mastering Astronomy web site. Finally, note that you cannot drop the class after the NGR and W deadlines listed in the class schedule, even if you are not doing well. Likewise, incompletes will only be allowed if there is verifiable medical emergency.

    Grades (out of 520 possible points)

    A 88.5% =460
    B 77.5% = 398
    C 65% = 338
    D 55% = 286

    Getting Help

    If you are having problems logging into blackboard, or with any other technical (i.e. computer or web) issues that are preventing you from doing course work, please contact distance education support . Please check out the FAQ page in blackboard as well.

    For questions regarding grades, course material, quizzes, assignments, late work, and of course astronomy concepts and information, please contact your instructor at: You will generally get a response within two days (and usually one). If you don't get a response after two days, please try again! I never ignore emails from students, so you don't get a reply, something went wrong in cyberspace. Mastering Astronomy maintains their own on-site support, so please contact them, and let your instructor know if you are having site-specific problems.

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