Be familiar with the following terms and concepts from chapter 4 as you prepare for the midterm. Read what the chapter says about each item. You may need to go beyond a simple definition. Know what the chapter presents for each item!
1. What are states of consciousness?
2. What are biological rhythms? What is an example of a biological rhythm?
3. What are circadian rhythms? What is an example?
4. What is the superchiasmatic nucleus and how it is connected to circadian rhythms?
5. What's the difference between a "morning person" and a "night person?"
6. How does shift work relate to circadian rhythms? If you have to work on a rotating shift, what's the best way to do so?
7. What's the difference between controlled processing and automatic processing?
8. What are daydreams and how are they caused?
9. What's the primary research tool used in studying dreams?
10. What are the four stages of sleep introduced in lecture?
11. How does the REM sleep of babies compare with that of persons over 50?
12. About how long does an infant spend in REM sleep (in percent)?
13. What are two functions of sleep?
14. What are at least four examples of sleep disorders?
15. What are the effects of sleep deprivation?
16. What is REM sleep?
17. In what sleep stage do dreams occur?
18. Be familiar with the six "basic facts" about dreams given on page 142.
19. What is the psychodynamic approach to interpreting dreams developed by Freud? What's the difference between the manifest dream and the latent dream?
20. How does "wish fulfillment" relate to the psychodynamic explanation of dreams?
21. What is the "cognitive view" of dreams and their meaning?
22. What is a "damit" dream?
23. What is the physiological perspective on the meaning/function of dreams (lecture)?
24. What are two approaches to understanding what hypnosis is? Be able to briefly describe each approach.
Note: You can omit the section on consciousness-altering drugs (pages 151-157)