Chapter five study guide

Be familiar with the following terms and concepts drawn from Chapter five and from lecture material on Learning.


1. In lecture, a 3-part description of learning was given. Be able to identify and describe each of these characteristics of learning.



2. From lecture, what is protein synthesis and what is its significance for learning?



3. What's the difference between learning by association and learning by observation?



4. What's the model for classical conditioning? Who "discovered" classical conditioning?



5. Be able to identify each of the key elements in the model for classical conditioning?

Unconditioned stimulus

Unconditioned response

Neutral stimulus

Conditioned stimulus

Unconditioned stimulus

6. If you are given an example of classical conditioning, be able to identify each of the elements. For example, be able to identify the unconditioned stimulus, the neutral stimulus, and so on.



7. How can classical conditioning be used to help understand phobias?



8. What are the four factors that influence the acquisition of a conditioned response? Be able to identify and describe each.



9. What are four temporal (timing) patterns that can be used to produce classical conditioning? Which one is best?



10. What is extinction? How does it work?



11. What are reconditioning and spontaneous recovery?



12. What is stimulus generalization?



13. What is a conditioned taste aversion? How does it differ from "normal" conditioning?



14. What are flooding and desensitization? How are these techniques used?



15. What area of the brain is closely connected to classical conditioning? How do we know that this area is involved?



16. What's the difference between classical and operant conditioning?



17. What does the term reinforcement mean?



18. What are two ways to strengthen a behavior?



19. What's the difference between negative reinforcement and punishment??



20. From lecture, what are some problems associated with the use of punishment to eliminate a behavior?



21. What are techniques such as shaping and successive approximations used for?



22. What are four schedules of reinforcement? How do they differ from one another?



23. What is the "matching law?"



24 What is Learned Helplessness and how does operant conditioning relate to it?



25. How can Observational Learning be used to explain human aggression?



26. What are four essentials to have in place if observational learning is to work?



27. What is a cognitive map?



28. What is Applied Behavioral Analysis?



29. What is biofeedback and how does it relate to operant conditioning?